GIOVANNI VERGAGiovanni Verga was born in Catania, September 2, 1840. Activity of the young writer took place, both in the literary field (in the composition of patriotic and historical novels), both in the political arena (with Nicephorus founded and edited the weekly “Rome of the Italian» ), in the hometown. Primarily influenced by his teacher Don Antonio Abate, author of works steeped in romance, Verga began with a novel called Love and Fatherland, written between 1856 and 1857 and remained unpublished. The passionate reading of Dumas, Sue, Scott and Radcliffe produced an inexorable effect. In 1861, in fact, of “Rome of the Italian” came out in installments in The Carbonari of the mountain, the work in which they were shuffled some how patriotic rhetoric and a prohibition romantic repertoire. In 1863 was published in “The New Europe,” the second novel Verga appendix titled “On the lagoons: still” love “and” homeland “, even though the sentimental theme was beginning to prevail over patriotic.
It came time to leave Sicily, was 1865: Florence, capital of the kingdom of Italy for a year, offered to Verga worldly ideal environment in which to roam their talent. The interest of the young provincial urbanized for the glories of worldliness found in large outlet A sinner (1866): “a literary sin,” as he was described later the same author. The success came more resonant with history of a blackcap (1871), a novel in which the emphasis was on the theme of overwhelming passions and fatal. In it was found, in hindsight, a kind of realism avant la lettre, especially where Rod had told the madness of the young protagonist forced to become a nun.
He moved to Milan in 1872, Rod attended the gatherings of elegant Milan and came into contact with the bohemian, while not sharing all the way down the nihilistic attitude of their movement. Testimony of this phase is the novel Eva (1873), which parallels the figure of the protagonist, Philip Lanti, that of Eve, a woman characterized by carefree life and passionate love psychology: the self-righteous scandalized, while critics decreed the conspiracy of silence.
Not as happy can be considered the Rod of the subsequent novels: Tiger Royal (1873) and Eros (1875) are works in which there is a loss of coherence of the female character, now split in the figure of the femme fatale, on the one hand and that of female faithful to the myth of the house, on the other. There is, meanwhile, a great progress in terms of language and style. The lesson given by the Education Flaubert’s Sentimental is savored with good certainty. The taste Verga is however still too theatrical. The writer has not been completely dismissed by beautiful world: it is instead convinced of the need for separation from the life of a certain part of society, represented by the aristocracy and gentlemen.
In 1878, traumatized by the death of his mother and tormented by guilt for having abandoned the domestic hearth, Verga will initiate the writing of I reluctantly back nostalgically to the Mother Mediterranean. If Nedda (1875) is for some the start of the new art of Verga, for others – particularly Momigliano – will only show up as “the elegant salons of the veteran” has “changed the subject … but not his spirit and his habits of mind. “Thesis, this, which will be confirmed in the next volume Primavera and other stories, where you will return to the elegant and worldly society of Eros.
About the meeting with the realism of Verga, Momigliano argued that, if it was to be a writer, initially, a “push liberating” (Cross), then resolved into a pattern of weakness. The itinerary of the Verga greater will be marked by an effort to escape the realism of the massif, to rise to a more conscious realism. When in 1875 he composed the “comp sailor” Padron ‘Ntoni and when, then, in 1878, he announced to the cycle of Paola Salvatore “tide” (later renamed “cycle of Losers”), for the Verismo Verga was still a technical tool, which suggested a new language. Only with the introduction of a lover of Weeden Verga was able to accept the doctrine of impersonality; with Reverie, then, the temporary detachment from worldly theme can be said to be consumed.
First fruit of the “conversion” of the literary life of the Verga fields (1880): here the Verismo is still lyrically sublimated, and you can see also the usual influence vittorughiano given by the inevitable final catastrophe. The sense of inevitable tragedy also appears in The Malavoglias (1881), a major work in the dramatic sense of pain and death, and to the genius of the narrative technique of “speech relived.”
Ne Malavoglias, however, continued to make Verga rhetoric on the hearth and the need to not break the law of solidarity which binds the poor among them. The ideal “oyster”, theorized in Reverie, is not a condition of fact, but an ideological formulation. It has often been observed as Verga lacked a clear social idea. In fact, in the Sicilian writer lived a consistent conservative ideology, even if “enlightened conservative” (Sapegno), which may explain the fatalistic pessimism and the terror of history, relived nell’Aci Trezza I Malavoglia, country made ahistorical microcosm of life lived according to the necessities of nature, rather than the story.
The gradient ironic, however, he finds himself in another great novel: Mastro Don Gesualdo (1889), a synthesis of all the work Verga’s masterpiece Realism and Italian. Among the latter, and I lie Malavoglias The husband of Helen (1882) – a return to the complex psychology of women’s novels mundane – the stories of Milan To the streets (1883), and finally the Novels rusticane (1883). And so, to the tune of “home” replaced that of “stuff” (Stuff): while the vision of the fire suits to the poor, the passion for the “stuff” disregards the class differences.
After Mastro Don Gesualdo begins to be able to see the sunset of the writer who, in vain, looking for a new expression in the language of the theater. The negative judgment on the theater Verga is unanimous: the language and stage action does not have the same intensity of the landscape, the art element of strength Verga. Since this period is your my (1905), a play adapted from the novel, which embodies a preface full of polemical barbs toward the Socialists.
The involution of the political ideas of social Verga is now clear and rapid: in a letter to Camerini in 1888 he described himself as politically “moderate”, but it was deeply opposed to the method of parliamentary democracy. Later became a supporter of the policy of Crispi and Africanist, and when you will experience the tragic events of 1898 in Milan, plaudirà the repression of Bava-Beccaris. In 1912 he joined the explicitly nationalist party, was interventionist, D’Annunzio and antinittiano, not failing to show sympathy for the nascent fascist party. A provoke these positions will intervene even economic reasons: Verga, landowner, was very worried by the law, which damaged the citrus producers, was anxious about the lack of sales of its lemons Novalucello and locked in a senile strain that had the manic: this situation served to explain the artistic silence in recent years.
After harvesting Vagrancy (1887), the twilight began Verga with the memories of Captain d’Arce (1891), tired of shooting aristocrats mundane reasons. The failed attempt to create, with the Duchess of Leyra, an impressive framework of Sicilian aristocratic life: the novel, which was to be part of the planned and never-ending “cycle of Losers”, which also includes The Malavoglias and Mastro Don Gesualdo, he saw light only the first chapter, published in 1922, after the author’s death.
Verga lived his last years in Catania, where he died in 1922 abandoned a life inert and quiet, solitude disdainful and sullen, careless of fame consecrated by the late appointment to the Senate in October 1920.