ABBADIA SAN SALVATORE“Terra walled defense from the west by high castle walls, and from the east, defended by steep cliffs piperino, surrounded by chestnut forests and orchards irrigated by clear springs.” So it stood at the end of the nineteenth century the medieval Abbey of San Salvatore to travelers who arrived in the eastern part of the Monte Amiata. The major changes induced by the opening of the mine in 1897 led to the birth of a new city in contrast to the old castle. By the time the old town lost its role and became increasingly a residential neighborhood poor. The company Monte Amiata, was favored by the presence at the beginning of an urban center so close to the workplace.
The labor force, in contrast to other mining towns of the Maremma, did not need, more immediately, to be housed. By the time the presence of mine had a significant importance for the urban development of the country. The first interventions, followed by a development plan (1910) which covered only the areas in the immediate vicinity of the old town and had a particular socio-health.
Among other things were made moving the cemetery, the first accommodation in the area outside the walls (Orto ditches, current Viale Roma), the connection of drinking water, electric light and the telephone, the Town Hall, the schools and Hospital (built by the Company Monte Amiata).
The building development was so strong that in 1927 it was approved a new Master Plan that drew the new town to the mine. In 1934 was built the sports field where the project involved over to the football field, tennis courts, swimming pool and tracks for athletics and for the horses. It was a great work for the time and conforms to the ideal political-aesthetic of the Fascist regime. It also produced the road linking the summit Amiata that later had an important role in the development of tourism in the country. Meanwhile, the mining company was building the first villages for employees.
At the end of the war Abbey is presented with a town plan already outlined and a set of infrastructures and services that were further enhanced in the 60s, to coincide with a new economic growth due to the increase in mining activities and the development of tourism ‘area. The most recent building expansions, the margin hills to the west and along the main road, they altered and complicated the clarity of the urban. This nevertheless remains characterized by the two main poles that have made the history of the country: on one side the old town and the Abbey Mine on the other hand, which has become the Park-mining museum.
The presence of the mining industry in the country Abbey of San Salvatore caused a profound change in the economic, social and cultural development.
Despite not having been made in full the paternalistic model / Company Town bourgeois typical of Anglo-Saxon, but with the creation of the Mutual Aid Society began that work especially necessary assistance to restore peace in times of social workers’ struggles and to offset the reduction in wages during periods of economic crisis. Starting from 1910, the year in which you started the construction of the hospital, they began building work that affected not only the works strictly for the mine workers (the houses for workers and employees, the baths and the colony), but also works of public interest such as the construction of sewers, the town hall, the movie theater and schools. In addition to building works the mining company pursued an action of support for the families of the miners with the creation of marine colonies and aid for school. He made the work of dissemination of cultural and sporting activities with the financing of the band, and the body Filodrammatico of the football team.
All the achievements, though partly transformed, they can still be identified within the urban fabric and represent an important witness for the socio-economic history of the country.
Particularly recognizable is the Central European character of many buildings built during the German: a constructive and decorative impression that continued in subsequent years.